The Romanian Space Agency (ROSA) is the coordinator of Romania’s national and international space activities. The Romanian Space Agency (ROSA) is a public institution entirely self-funded, operating under Government Decision no. 923/20.11.1995 and the subsequent decisions of the Ministry of Research and Innovation – National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation (A.N.C.S.I.).
The mission of the Romanian Space Agency has four major components:
- to coordinate national space research and applications programs
- to promote space development in Romania
- to represent the Romanian Government in international space cooperation programmes
- to research space related issues at the ROSA Research Center
As a coordinator of national space research and applications programme, ROSA designs and coordinates the implementation of the National Space Programme. Following its objectives, the Agency is authorised to establish research and development centers.
As the representative of the Government, ROSA established cooperation agreements with international organisations such as the European Space Agency (ESA) or the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), as well as bilateral cooperation agreements at governmental level. Together with the Ministry of External Affairs, ROSA represents Romania at the sessions of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Use of Outer Space — COPUOUS and its sub-committees.
ROSA is the coordinator organization of the Research, Development and Innovation STAR Programme – Space Technology and Advanced Research for the period 2012-2019, approved by Law no. 262/2011 – the tool which provides national support for implementing the Agreement between Romania and the European Space Agency (ESA) on Romania’s accession to the ESA Convention.
At the same time, the Agency develops its own research and development projects through the ROSA Research Centre.
The involvement of the National R&D Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry ICECHIM in the RO-CHER consortium is justified by both the proven ability to address the issues raised in the proposal, and to the excellent scientific recognition, at national and international level. This is a tradition Institute (founded in 1950) in the field of chemical research, with an impressive infrastructure that is constantly upgrading, with research teams inter and trans disciplinary with scientific skills proven by numerous publications in prestigious journals and participation in renowned scientific events with concentration of scientific results to the niche of applied science, to better serve local industry. In these projects, the activities performed consisted in the development of documentary studies, development of technological solutions, research and experimentation at laboratory scale and pilot testing, completion of elaborated technologies, physico-chemical characterization of new products, establishing technological parameters. The scientific results obtained have been recognized by: re-accreditation as National Institute for Research and Development; obtaining of more than 150 awards, including gold medals at the International Exhibition of Research and Inventions and Salons of Regional Research, more than 200 OSIM and EPO patents and patent applications, publishing scientific papers in ISI journals, coordinating scientific projects (CEEX, PN2/Partnerships, FP7, ERANET, bilateral, Sectoral Plan, PNIII projects).
The ICECHIM team is built around the Emerging Nanotechnologies Research Team and consists of 19 researchers; 2 new researchers will be hired. The working group consists of experienced and educated researchers in archaeometry, materials science and the application of the specific techniques of this proposal, with results materialized in published papers in ISI journals, research projects, prizes and medals obtained for the quality of the scientific works. The application of the methods of scientific research in the interdisciplinary fields has been successfully accomplished in doctoral theses, postdoctoral projects, national and international projects.
The University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest (USAMVB) is the oldest (160 years old), the largest and the most appreciated agronomic university in Romania. The study programs have been organized according with the Bologna process. In present, the organizational structure of the University is the following: 7 faculties (Agriculture, Horticulture, Zootechnics, Veterinary Medicine, Land Reclamation and Environmental Engineering, Biotechnologies and Management and Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development), 10 research centers, doctoral schools. The research structure consists of: institutes, research farms, research centers and laboratories (including remote sensing, GIS, photogrammetry and cartography). The University has a remarkable material and logistic support and has a valuable team of professionals. The managerial experience in the management, implementation and monitoring of programmes and projects was gained through collaboration with important research programmes: AGRAL and BIOTECH – two coordinated programs; TEMPUS (over 150 projects); WORLD BANK (over 70 projects); SOCRATES / ERAMUS (21 projects); EUREKA (19 projects); COST (12 projects), LEONARDO (11 projects), RELANSIN (over 200 projects); CNCSIS (over 250 projects), CALIST (12 projects), ORIZONT 2000 (300 projects); INCO COPERNICUS, Phare, FP7 (12 projects), PNCDI II / III (300 projects) and others. UASMV Bucharest has bilateral and multilateral programs with universities, research institutes and other institutions in Europe, Asia, America and Africa.
The Faculty of Land Reclamations and Environmental Engineering (FLREE) has a Research Center for Rural Engineering and Environmental Protection composed of three laboratories, including the Center for the Use of Space Technologies, which has the central role in the involvement of the UASVMB team within the RO-CHER project.
The National Museum of Unification Alba Iulia (MNUAI) is a public institution of national interest, subordinated to Alba County Council, and is headquartered in the heart of the Alba Iulia citadel, (12-14, Mihai Viteazul Street). Currently, it administers three historic monument buildings: “Babilon” building, opposite the Union Hall, and Museikon headquarters (3, N. Iorga Street). The “Babilon” building was built in Romantic style during 1851 and 1853, having a military destination – former residence pavilion for officers. The two-storeyed building with more 100 rooms was used as residence pavilion for officers, which subsequently was refurbished to become a museum between 1967 and 1968. The Union Hall is located within the confines of the former Army House, built between 1898 and 1900, and at the same time is the room where the 1228 delegates gathered and voted the union of Transylvania, Banat, Maramures and Hungarian parts with Romania, on the 1st of December 1918. Additionally, from 2017, the National Museum of Unification Alba Iulia administers the headquarters of the new icon and old book museum, named Museikon, this being located in the building of the former military hospital of the citadel. The project was conducted by the Alba County Council, by the financing obtained through the EEA Financial Mechanism 2009-2014. The collections of the National Museum of Unification Alba Iulia consist of 200 000 pieces of cultural heritage, and the library has approximately 70 000 volumes. The museum annually publishes the periodical “Apvlvm. Acta Musei Apulensis”, and from 1994 began publishing the specialized series “Bibliotheca Musei Apulensis”.
In 1887, on the initiative of professor Sigismund Reiner, was established the “Historical, Archaeological and Natural Sciences Society of the Lower Alba County”, which followed to gather and put on display the historical artefacts from the area in a museum to be. Its inauguration was held in the current building of the Primary and Middle School, no 3, in 1888, where two rooms housed 662 archaeological objects and approximately 100 numismatic, together with hundreds of books donated by Sigismund Reiner. The first custodian and then manager of the museum was the Czech archaeologist and professor Adalbert Cserny (1842-1916), who contributed to the enrichment of the collection and publication of the first editions of the museum periodical. Ever since 1889, he conducted archaeological excavation in the town, at the Roman thermae, at the same time unflaggingly gathering pieces of historic interest from different inhabitants of Alba Iulia and from throughout the county. In 1897, Cserny discovered a fragment from the wall of the XIIIth Legion Gemina’s fort within the pioneer garrison from the citadel, and during the following years other ancient vestiges on Dealul Furcilor (Pitchforks’ Hill) or in Partos district. The results of his researchers were included in more studies that appeared in the 18 issues of the museum’s periodical published between 1888 and 1916. In 1901, Adalbert Cserny published a comprehensive synthesis on the Roman fort Apulum and the other ancient fortifications of the Lower Alba County. In 1916, on his death, the museum was further enriched with the results of his work: 5865 prehistoric objects, 6544 Roman, 679 medieval, 3937 coins, 7267 objects of natural sciences and 4634 volumes.
During the First World War, a part of the museum’s collection was stolen or scattered. After the Union of Transylvania with Romania from 1918, due to operation and administration difficulties that the Society underwent, the museum was run under the aegis of the Astra Association, being moved in the north-eastern wing of the complex of the Coronation Cathedral. The inauguration took place on 20th May 1929, it was organized as the Museum of Unification, the collection being enriched with numerous artefacts on the Revolution from 1848 or the Great Union from 1918. Worth mentioning of the most important objects are the personal belongings and letters of Avram Iancu, the collective addresses of affiliation to the petitionary movement from 1894, the 6 volumes bound in tri-coloured leather including the Documents of the Union from 1st December 1918, the original manuscript with the speech held by Vasile Goldis at the Great National Assembly from Alba Iulia as well as the banners and tri-coloured scarfs worn by the delegates and participants in the popular assembly from the Romans’ Plateau.
The Union Hall was also refurbished between 1921 and 1922. The access in the building was arranged as a triumphal arch, above which is carved in marble „In this place, on the 1st December, the year of our Lord 1918, was forever and irrevocably proclaimed, by the solemn and unanimous vote of the nation, the Union of Transylvania with Romania. May the remembrance of this act be eternal”. On the eastern side of the Hall was constructed a terrace, and major changes were made to the interior by adding of a vestibule and some lateral niches to the northern and southern extremities. The room also had a semi-circular vault supported by pilasters and was enriched with a series of columns and brackets consoles decorated with vegetal motives. The lateral archways and lunettes of the recesses had paintings on canvas made by the French Pierre Bellet, showing portraits of rulers and personalities of the Romanian culture.
After the inauguration of the new museum, this went into gradual decline due to lack of funds required for maintenance. Still, the institution survived by the voluntary effort of some local intellectuals, who worked at the museum, although they weren’t paid for it. In 1938, Nicolae Iorga, who at that time chaired the Commission of Historic Monuments in Romania, named professor Ioan Berciu as director. This enjoyed the scientific support of the Institute of Classical Studies from Cluj, as well as the material one, by inclusion of the museum in the budget of Mures area. The museum got a new name „Alba Iulia Regional Museum”, and from 22 August 1939 began publication of the first issue of the periodical “Apvlvm. Acta Musei Apulensis”. In 1939 and then in 1942, systematic excavations were carried out at the Dacian fortress from Capalna, and at the Neolithic settlement from „Lumea Noua” district between 1942 and 1944, at the prehistorical ones from Telna, Ighiel, Cetea and Petresti, the Dacian-Roman vestiges from Ighiu and the Roman ones from Alba Iulia. At the same time, he was preoccupied with enriching the collections by purchases and donations, during this period entering the collections of the museum two Roman numismatic hoards and more documentary evidence on preparation and accomplishment of the Great Union from 1918.
After power was seized by the communists, the museum was nationalised and was wholly financed by the Romanian state. In 1958, the museum was attributed the old Army House, where the Union Hall also was, and in 1967 the main wing of the museum was moved to the “Babilon” building. The restoration laboratory, the photographic one, the library and a part of museal heritage were moved to the Army House. Both bodies of the museum underwent restoration and were arranged in 1968. The Union Hall had a floor of white marble of Aluni, and the walls and columns were made of red marble of Moneasa. All the details that told of the Romanian Kingdom were eliminated, and the paintings on canvas from the lateral extremities were replaced with frescoes made by Constantin Piliuta, Marius Cilievici and Pavel Codita. The inauguration of the new building bodies took place on 28 November 1968 in the presence of the State Council’s president of the Socialist Republic of Romania, Nicolae Ceausescu. In the same day, in the vicinity of the museum was unveiled the equestrian statue of the voivode Michael the Brave, which was made by the sculptor Oscar Han. In 1975, the museum was reorganised similarly as it is today, the exhibits being presented chronologically throughout the 64 rooms of the “Babilon” building and the Union Hall from the former Army House. The ethnographical department of the museum was set up in 1959-1960 when the specialists of the institution started to collect and research ethnographical pieces.
Between 1993 and 1994, as well as in 2018, the Union Hall has undergone restoration again, attempting to recreate the interior as it once was at the inauguration from 1922. The official reopening of the Union Hall, after overhaul, refurbishment and restoration, will take place on the 1st December 1918, to officially celebrate the Centennial of the Great Union.
The research activity of the National Museum of Unification Alba Iulia is extremely diverse, beginning with archaeological research on projects of national, regional or local interest, and continuing with projects of research, documentation and valorisation of different collections from the heritage of the museum, or research projects in collaboration with national or even international institutions.
Post-war archaeological researches were resumed in 1957 and continued until the 90’s as systematic archaeological researches, financed by the state. The most important ones of this type took place at the Thracian-Getic fortress from Teleac (1959-1960 and 1978-subsequently 1985), at the „Lumea Nouă” Neolithic settlement (1960 and 1976), at the Dacian citadel Apulon and feudal fort from the heights of Piatra Craivii (1961), at the feudal fortresses from Tauti and Vurpar and at the remnants of the Orthodox Metropolis established by Michael the Great in Alba Iulia (the 60’s), at the archaeological site from Ghirbom in Turdas and Petresti (1967-1976), at the necropolises from Sanmiclaus (1973-1979), Berghin (1977-1979), Statia de salvare from Alba Iulia (1979), Ampoita (1980) and Blandiana (1981-1982). There were also researched the Dacian fortifications from Cetatea de Balta (1972-1973), Capalna (1967, from 1983), and those Roman from Dealul Furcilor (1970), from Cetatea de Balta (1972-1973), from Abrud (1977-1978), „Carolina” district from Alba Iulia (1982) and from the fort of the XIIIth Legion Gemina (1992-2004, 2011-2016).
Beginning with 2000, archaeological researches mainly became preventive researches, due to investment programmes of national, regional or local interest, and the amount of these preventive archaeological researches put Alba County, and the National Museum of Unification implicitly, in a leading position in Romania as for number of archaeological authorisations provided annually, with an annual percentage of more than 20% from the national total.
At the same time with the archaeological activities, the museum carried out full activities of purchasing archaeological, historic, ethnographic, art etc. objects. The collections of the museum grew from 29.945 pieces in 1949 to 39.405 in 1965 and to 117.817 in 1983, ca. 200 000 currently, except for the books. These last ones were 10.794 volumes in 1949, 18.275 in 1965 and 42.183 in 1983, almost 70.000 currently. The periodical of the museum continued to release the second volume (1946), the third (1949), the fourth (1961), the fifth (1964) and the sixth (1967). From 1975 onwards, “APVLVM” became a yearbook, in 2017 reaching its 54 issue. In 1983, this was disseminated externally in more than 40 countries and 406 specialised institutions.
The Museum and the Union Hall are visited by more than 150 000 tourists of different ages, from inland and abroad, each year. Similarly, the museum has diverse programmes and workshops for groups of pupils.
The Museum of Dacian and Roman Civilisation (MCDR) is one of the oldest museums in the national network, revealing a high magnitude archaeological and historical potential. Special importance is conferred to this region by the presence, in the Orăștie Mountains, of five monuments included in the UNESCO World Heritage List, namely the Dacian fortresses from Grădiștea de Munte – Sarmizegetusa Regia, Costești – Cetățuie, Costești – Blidaru, Luncani – Piatra Roșie și Bănița. In the area of Hațeg, also in Hunedoara County, lies the capital city of the Roman province of Dacia, Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa, where several important religious and civil edifices were unearthed.
The museum has functioned in Magna Curia palace since 1934, one of the oldest architectural monuments from Deva, included in the List of Historic Monuments from Romania at Category A. The Museum of Dacian and Roman Civilisation manages the site museum and archaeological site from Sarmizegetusa, the Museum of Ethnography and Folk Art from Orăştie, the Museum of Local History and Ethnography Brad, the “Aurel Vlaicu” Memorial Complex, the “Avram Iancu” Museum-House from Baia de Criș, and the Monuments Complex from Țebea, housing a number of more than 650.000 cultural goods, some of them classified in the Thesaurus or Fund categories.
Restoration, conservation and computer inventory activities received particular attention, ensuring the protection of the items recorded in the registries of the museum, as well as their monitoring. Curative conservation and restoration services are provided for the museum’s mobile heritage in the institution’s own laboratories, certified in 2013 by the Ministry of Culture. The Restoration, Conservation and Investigations Department joins every year the National Restoration Salon, organized by the Museum of Oltenia Craiova, where several prizes were attributed to the specialists from Deva, including one of excellence. All the museum’s specialized departments contribute to the protection and promotion of the cultural heritage through their specific activity and by collaborating with similar institutions, from Romania and abroad.